The tragedy of the young footballer Emilio Sala’s untimely death in an avoidable light aircraft crash has opened a can of worms in the general aviation world that seems to have been aided by the internet and misuse of American regulations.
By using US registered aircraft some appear to be avoiding regulatory scrutiny and indulging in what have become known as “grey charters.” Essentially, this involved skirting the limits of – or even blatantly ignoring – the rules regarding a private pilot taking payment for flying from A to B.
The regulations are intended to allow private pilots to share the cost with genuine friends who, let’s say, fly over to France for lunch and split the cost. However, adverts online seem to offer flights anywhere and at any time you like; which is clearly not in the spirit of the law and probably outwith it altogether.
The pilot of the Sala aircraft may have been experienced but so far as we can tell at this stage, he was not a qualified commercial pilot and had no instrument flying qualifications. Those two factors alone should have made the flight impossible and given the end result we know why.
If you have not experienced it, it can be hard to imagine how difficult it is to remain orientated and in control when flying in cloud and there are good reasons why specific qualifications are required to fly on instruments.
I have no wish to be negative about Mr Ibbotson, the pilot, but he was probably well out of his comfort zone and also his ability and experience level as well.
It can get difficult and frightening very quickly in poor weather and at night and I feel for both of them. Most professional pilots will have had scary experiences but usually survive them due to experience and training. Why Mr Ibbotson did not refuse to fly in conditions beyond his ability is another discussion; I have declined to fly myself when circumstances are not right and never regretted the decision.
When the full report is published we will know more but my hope is that the authorities will remove this “grey charter” world from the “too difficult box” and start prosecuting people.
UPDATE January 2020
Ever since the AAIB released information that the young man’s body had high levels of Carbon MOnoxide in his tissue, interest seems to have abated. Presumably some have assumed that the issue of an illegal charter was no longer relevant as the pilot may have lost control for the same reason of poisning rather than lack of qualification and training; I would contest this view.
Whilst it is hard to obtain serious evidence on the condition of the aircraft it was not a certified public transport aircraft and so the legality and competency issue is still valid. Had Mr Sala been flown in a public transport aircraft operated by a fully compliant charter operator the crash would not have happened.
I would hope that police investigations continue and take this into account.
Update following publication of the AAIB Report, March 2020
The report on this tragedy is a very impressive technical exercise in which the AAIB succeeded in reconstructing the flight in amazing detail. Inevitably with an aircraft that was not equipped with any kind of recorder, they began with an underwater camera survey and in cooperation with the American NTSB (National Transportation Safety Board) using data from pervious accidents of the same aircraft type; put together the probable sequence of events.
Areas of uncertainty are remarkably few and do not impinge on the basic reasons for the crash. What the report confirms is that the pilot lost control of the aircraft and having done so it crashed to the sea just north of Guernsey. What they have added that I had not assumed is that the aircraft broke up in flight due to the design stresses being exceeded, and by a significant margin.
I do not intend to go into all the technical methods used by the investigators; anyone interested in the detail can read the report on line easily. The toxicology report on Mr Sala showed CO levels of 58%, which means it was near certain that he was unconscious at the time of the crash; a tiny crumb of comfort for those close to him perhaps but it was still a needless waste of a young life.
It is possible that the pilot was also affected by CO, which is odourless and invisible, but they make the point that whilst he shared a cabin with the passenger it is possible that he had a lower exposure. He was clearly lucid in radio transmissions shortly before the loss of control and so it seems likely that he was less affected, although it is not possible to establish this as his body has never been found.
It is equally possible that he lost control due to the simple inability to fly the aircraft in the prevailing conditions. Whilst he had instrument qualifications, he did not have recent instrument flying experience, which is vital to maintain he required skills. Single pilot operation is such weather is very challenging and current practice very important. The autopilot was placarded as inoperative, although there were indications that he had used it.
Either way, he was not qualified to operate the fight and so the prudent course of action would be to stay in Nantes. However, the evidence shows that he was to be paid for the job, which in addition to being illegal, puts a pressure on him to complete the task, rather than take the safer option.
The difference between a private pilot’s training, qualification and experience and that of a fully qualified commercial pilot is a yawning gulf. You would not place a recently qualified car driver at the wheel of a formula 1 car; not ss [perfect analogy but the gap in experience and skill levels is considerable in both examples.
I sincerely hope that the CAA and authorities stop the so called “grey charter” world from operating as it puts the public at risk. An air taxi service operator has to have an Air Operators Certificate and the requirements from that are specifically designed that the aircraft is maintained to commercial standards – which this one was not – and that the crew will be suitably qualified for the job. If the cost of hiring an aircraft looks too cheap to be true, then it almost certainly is.